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Models Of Psychology

Models Of Psychology

Models Of Psychology

Models of psychology. According to American Psychological Association (APA), a psychological model is a theory that usually includes a mechanism for predicting psychological outcomes, intended to explain specific psychological processes. They are used in psychology to predict outcomes and explain specific psychological processes.

The American Psychological Association (APA) also described the models of psychology as a representation of human cognitive and response characteristics used to approximate and evaluate the performance of an actual individual in a complex situation. They are important theories which help in providing a pattern to understand human thoughts, emotions and behaviours.

It was developed by Albert Bandura in 1961 after conducting his bobo doll experiment and has now become a mainstream theory in the world of psychology. Modelling in psychology is a process that involves learning by copying the behaviour of another person. The aim of models of psychology is to change behaviour in order to improve thought patterns and achieve goals.

Albert Bandura in 1961 proved that humans naturally model each other; children learn things by modelling the examples available to them, whether their parents, teacher or something they see on TV. Children use modelling when learning things like tying their shoelaces and even the use of cutlery or gestures when speaking.

The modelling technique is used by psychologists who believe in learning, unlearning and relearning things, as they see this as the only way for humans to continue to grow because as the saying goes, “if you are not growing, you are dying”. So models of psychology are mostly used by those who have a growth mindset.

According to Wikipedia, modelling in psychology involves a method in which certain cognitive-behavioural techniques of psychotherapy whereby the clients learn by imitation alone without any verbal direction from the therapist.

Wikipedia also explains the models of psychology as a general process in which a person serves as a model for others and exhibits behaviours to be imitated by others this method is most commonly discussed or used when dealing with children in developmental psychology which deals with how and why humans develop, grow, change and adapt to the course of their lives.

Models of psychology are used by people from all walks of life. Parents for example are able to use modelling techniques to teach their children good habits like brushing twice daily, eating healthy, exercising and the importance of reading books, because children learn faster from what they see and the behaviours of the people around them.

In relationships, models of psychology are used during group couples’ therapy where couples can learn how to handle stressful situations by listening to how someone else in the group handled or dealt with theirs, in the same way, a boss or superior in an organisation can model great work ethics by constantly showing his subordinates the importance through his actions.

People also use the models of psychology to achieve their goals or aims in all aspects of life. Like Tony Robbins says, “Success leaves clues” and this goes to say that if a person desires to be successful in business or any other aspect, he needs to pick a successful person in that line, model their strategies and attitudes towards their goal and he can also become an achiever.

Psychologists may also use the models of psychology to understand challenges and give insights into how people can cope with stressful and or difficult situations. They may focus on one model or use multiple models to help solve a person’s issues in order for them to live a quality life where they can achieve their goals.

What are the uses of models of psychology?

  1. They are important in evaluating an individual’s performance by using a range of cognitive and response characteristics.
  2. Psychologists use them to help understand challenges and help people overcome issues that may be causing them any form of distress.
  3. Models of psychology are used by parents to help their children unlearn some bad habits they may have learnt from them.
  4. Psychological models provide a scaffold for thinking further, much deeper and rigorously.
  5. According to Treagurst, Chittleborough and Mamiala 2003, models of psychology are used to improve explanations, generate discussions, make predictions, provide visual representations of abstract concepts and generate mental models.

Modelling in psychology is mostly used in social learning where an observer imitates his role model or when a person produces a behaviour, acting as a model, with the aim for it to serve as a learning tool for another person. In models of psychology, people learn by watching other people and then imitating them or doing what they have watched.

According to Albert Bandura, observational learning involves more than just imitation, he believed that internal mental states also have a role to play in learning. According to him while developing the models of psychology, pure behaviourism could not explain why learning can take place effectively without external reinforcement.

Albert Bandura proposed that there are four components that contribute to behavioural modelling which are;

  1. Attention – this is when the learner observes, watches, and pays attention to the behaviour being modelled.
  2. Retention – this involves the learner’s ability to remember the behaviour modelled earlier enough to recreate it.
  3. Reproduction – this involves the ability of the learner to recreate the behaviours learnt in the first stage.
  4. Reinforcement – in this stage, the behaviour modelled by the learner must be rewarded.

According to Albert Bandura, there are three (3) models of psychology which are; live, verbal and symbolic. The live model involves the behaviour being demonstrated in person while the verbal model involves verbal communication or explanation of what is expected with actions and the symbolic model involves learning through books or movies.

What Are The Six Major Models Of Psychology?

What Are The Six Major Models Of Psychology?

What are the six major models of psychology? Psychology models are used to explain the different ways people learn, think and behave and the main factors behind our thoughts are formed, behaviours are learned in order for psychologists to be able to help people solve their problems and lead quality lives.

What are the six major models of psychology? There are several models of psychology but for the purpose of this part of the article, we will only discuss six (6) of them. The six major models we will look at are; Abnormal, Biological or Physiological, Social, Cognitive, Developmental and Personality psychologies.

Now, let’s dive into what are the six major models of psychology;

  1. Abnormal Psychology
    According to Wikipedia, abnormal psychology is a branch of psychology that studies unusual patterns of behaviour, emotion and thought which could possibly be understood as a mental disorder. There are many behaviour patterns that may be considered abnormal so this branch of psychology deals with the clinical aspect of psychology.
    This model deals with psychopathology and abnormal behaviour in the clinical context. In this model, psychologists focus on the origins and root causes of mental illnesses and consider the unusual patterns of behaviours, emotions and thoughts and the assessments, diagnosis and clinical treatment of these mental disorders.
    This model of psychology also takes a good look at what is considered to be the norm for behavioural, emotional and thought patterns of humans and the deviations and how these deviations can be diagnosed, addressed and treated. Just as the name implies, it deals with treating anything that is away from the norm.
  2. Social Psychology
    This model involves looking at the origins of social interactions and how they affect can affect a person. This involves studying the way and manner in which an individual’s beliefs, thoughts, emotions and goals are formed in a social context by their interactions with others.
    According to the American Psychological Association (APA), how you a person views themselves in relation to the world is what influences their behaviour and belief. Social psychology also looks at how the behaviour of other people can influence or affect the way a person sees themselves and their behaviour patterns.
    Baron, Bryne and Suls 1989 defined social psychology as the scientific field that seeks to understand the nature and causes of individual behaviour in social situations. According to Wikipedia, it is the scientific study of how thoughts, feelings and behaviours are influenced by the real or imagined presence of other people or social norms.
    We are still discussing what are the six major models of psychology and the next we will look at is;
  3. Biological Psychology
    Also known as physiological psychology is the model that analyses the relationship between the behaviour of people and biology. It looks at the role of the brain and neurotransmitters in the regulation and control of behaviour. Psychologists use this to know biological changes may cause behavioural changes.
    According to American Psychological Association (APA), biopsychology deals with the biological basis of thoughts, emotions and behaviour and the reciprocal relationship between biological and behavioural processes. This model simply focuses on the relationship between the brain and behaviour.
    Biopsychology focuses on the biological reasons for behaviours, mental disorders and mostly the relationship between the mind and the body. This model of psychology seeks to explain the relationship between the mental and physical worlds of humans and how biological processes may impact people’s thoughts, emotions and behaviours.
  4. Cognitive Psychology
    This model concentrates on understanding how people think and process information. According to American Psychological Association (APA), cognitive psychology looks at the mental processes that relate to thinking, memory and language and makes discoveries about these processes by observing behaviour.
    According to Wikipedia, it is the scientific study of mental processes such as attention, language use, memory, perception, problem-solving, creativity and reasoning. In summary, this branch of psychology focuses on mental processes and how they can affect a person’s emotions and behaviours.
    Cognitive psychologists study how attention, language use, memory, perception, problem-solving, creativity and reasoning can affect a person’s behavioural patterns and how specialised processes are used to understand them. This model of psychology takes shifts the focus from outward behaviour to studying the mental processes behind them.
    Let us look at the last two in our discussion about what are the six major models of psychology.
  5. Developmental Psychology
    This model studies how people grow and adapt psychically and psychologically. This study is essential in understanding how humans learn, grow and adapt. According to American Psychological Association (APA), it involves the study of human growth and development over their lifespan.
    Developmental psychologists study the cognitive, social, physical, personality, emotional and intellectual growth of humans. Wikipedia defined developmental psychology as the study of how humans grow, adapt and change across the course of their lives. The aim is to understand how thinking, feeling and behaviours can change throughout the course of life.
    According to Wikipedia, developmental psychology aims to examine the influence of nature and nurture on human development as well as processes of change in context across time. Developmental psychologists aim to help people cope with or overcome challenges they face by learning and understanding how people change throughout their lifetime.
  6. Personality Psychology
    According to the American Psychological Association (APA), “the field of personality psychology studies the nature and definition of personality together with its development, structure, traits, dynamic processes, variations with emphasis on enduring and stable individual differences and maladaptive forms”.
    This involves the study of how personalities develop. It also studies the differences and similarities between personalities. Wikipedia defines personality psychology as a branch of psychology that examines personality and its variation among individuals with the aim to show how people are individually different due to psychological forces.
    This model of psychology seeks to examine the way personality develops and the individual differences in personality. This model aims to give a scientific explanation of the manners in which personality patterns are demonstrated and the resulting behavioural displays.

How Many Models Of Psychology Are There?

How Many Models Of Psychology Are There?

How many models of psychology are there? There are eight (8) models of psychology that are used to study behavioural patterns in individuals with the aim of understanding why people act the way they do and also to use the observations derived from the patterns observed to solve problems that may arise.

How many models of psychology are there? The eight models of psychology available are;

  • Abnormal psychology
  • Biopsychology
  • Social psychology
  • Cognitive psychology
  • Developmental psychology
  • Personality psychology
  • Forensic psychology
  • Industrial-organisational psychology.

How many models of psychology are there? We had earlier discussed six (6) major models of psychology that are commonly used and we will do a quick refresher on them in this part of the article and then we will discuss the additional two models of psychology which are commonly used.

How many models of psychology are there? There are eight (8) models of psychology which cover all aspects of human development, personality, physiology and psychology. Let us look at them and understand how they affect our everyday life.

  • Abnormal Psychology

This type of psychology focuses on the origin and root causes of mental disorders and the abnormal patterns of emotions, thoughts and behaviours.

  • Biological Psychology

This model of psychology focuses on explaining the relationship between biology and behaviour and the role of neurotransmitters in controlling and regulating human behaviour.

  • Cognitive Psychology

This model studies how attention, language use, memory, perception, problem-solving, creativity and reasoning can affect a person’s behavioural patterns and how specialised processes are used to understand them.

  • Social Psychology

This model examines how people are influenced by social settings and how the actions of other people can impact their behaviours.

  • Developmental Psychology

This model of psychology involves examining how humans grow, adapt and change over the course of their life span.

  • Personality Psychology

This model of psychology looks at how personalities develop and the individual differences in personality of people.

How many models of psychology are there? Now that we have refreshed our memories on the six (6) major models of psychology discussed earlier, let us look at two more models of psychology.

  • Forensic Psychology

According to Wikipedia, forensic psychology is the development and application of scientific knowledge and methods to answer legal questions arising in criminal, civil, contractual or other judicial proceedings. Forensic psychologists work to help the judicial system with criminal and civil issues.

According to American Psychological Association (APA), forensic psychology is a speciality in professional psychology characterised by activities primarily intended to provide professional psychological expertise within the judicial and legal systems. Forensic psychologists take part in investigations and psychological research.

Forensic psychology has been named as the intersection between the law and psychology. Forensic psychologists usually work by conducting forensic assessments for the judicial system to determine a person’s competency to stand trial.

  • Industrial-organisational Psychology

According to American Psychological Association (APA), industrial-organisational psychology also called i/o psychology is characterised by the scientific study of human behaviours in the workplace and organisations. It aims to understand how workplace relationships can affect people’s jobs and their lives.

Wikipedia defines industrial-organisational psychology as the science of human behaviours in the workplace. Psychologists in this field “conduct research on employees’ behaviours and attitudes and how these can be improved through recruitment processes training programs, feedback and management systems” says Wikipedia.

This model of psychology focuses on the critical importance of workplace relationships to individuals, businesses and society. It seeks to examine and understand the issues facing individuals in their teams and organisations and how the well-being and attitude of an employee can affect the entire organisation.

What Are The 5 Psychological Theories?

What Are The 5 Psychological Theories?

What are the 5 psychological theories? Psychological theories are studies which are backed by research and used to explain certain behaviours and thought processes in humans. When dealing with mental health issues or illnesses, therapy may be required and there are five (5) key theories that are used which we will discuss shortly.

Looking at what are the 5 psychological theories, we will be looking at the methods which are used when treating people with mental health disorders. Psychological theories are fact-based ideas or concepts that are used to explain the behaviour patterns of humans. They are usually backed by evidence and usually describe a behaviour.

So what are the 5 psychological theories commonly used in psychotherapy? The commonly used and generally accepted theories are as follows;

  • Behavioural theories
  • Cognitive theories
  • Biological theories
  • Psychodynamic theories
  • Humanistic theories

So let us dive deeper into what are the 5 psychological theories so that we can have a better understanding of them.

  1. Behavioural Theories
    Also known as behaviourism, is the theory that states that “all behaviours are learned through interaction with our environment through a process called conditioning”. This theory is widely used by psychologists and therapists to help people learn new behaviours and skills.
    This theory centres around the fact that all human behaviour patterns are usually in response to their environment. Behaviour theory benefits people who are seeking to change behaviour patterns from bad to good or those who want to learn or unlearn a behaviour pattern.
  2. Cognitive Theories
    Cognitive theories aim to explain how the mind processes information, and how certain thoughts can produce certain behaviours and form emotions. This theory focuses on a person’s internal state, such as problem-solving, attention, thinking and decision-making. It says that human behaviours are influenced by thought patterns.
    According to American Psychological Association (APA), cognitive theories are characterised by their focus on the idea that how and what people think leads to the arousal of emotions and that certain thoughts and beliefs lead to healthy emotions and adaptive behaviour. It aims to help understand behaviours by examining thought processes.
  3. Biological Theories
    This theory seeks to explain how genetics, DNA and hereditary factors can influence a person’s behaviour. This theory believes that human behaviours are inherited or transferred through genes and one’s adaptation to their environment. It attributes human behaviour and emotional patterns to biological causes.
    This theory looks at how biology affects behavioural patterns in humans. It believes that human behaviour is a result of genetics and physiology. The biological theory is essential in investigating some biological conditions like Schizophrenia and other biological-based characteristics such as IQ.
  4. Psychodynamic Theories
    Another theory we will look at when considering “what are the 5 psychological theories” is psychodynamic theories which aim to understand the root causes of unconscious behaviours. This theory suggests that our subconscious rules our behaviours.
    Based on Sigmund Freud, the human subconscious is made up of three factions, which are the id, the ego and the superego. He believes that adult behaviours are deeply rooted in childhood experiences.
  5. Humanistic Theories
    Also known as person-centred theory is a theory that indicates that every individual is unique and capable of change. The theory believes that individuals are responsible for their own happiness and functioning in social activities. The humanistic theory focuses on the goodness of human beings.
    The humanistic theory suggests that people have free will and the ability to develop and improve themselves. According to Wikipedia, humanistic theory aims to help the client gain the belief that all people are inherently good. Humanistic psychologists see people’s lives as they would naturally see them.

What Are The Seven Main Theories Of Psychology?

What Are The Seven Main Theories Of Psychology?

What are the seven main theories of psychology? Psychological theories are studies which are backed by research and are essential in explaining certain behaviours and thought processes in humans.

What are the seven main theories of psychology? There are seven (7) main theories of psychology which were developed with the aim of understanding behavioural patterns and thought processes in humans. These theories are behavioural theories, cognitive theories, psychodynamic theories, humanistic, biological, cross-cultural and evolutionary theories.

What are the seven main theories of psychology? We have discussed five (5) of these theories earlier and we will do a quick refresher for them and then look at the two additional theories available.

  • Behavioural Theories

The behavioural theory also called behaviourism believes that all human behaviours are learned through a process called conditioning.

  • Cognitive Theories

The cognitive theory seeks to explain how the mind processes information and how certain thoughts can produce behaviours and form emotions.

  • Biological Theories

The biological theory explains how human behaviours are a result of genetics, DNA and physiological factors. It looks at how biology affects behavioural patterns in humans.

  • Psychodynamic Theories

The psychodynamic theory aims to understand the root causes of unconscious behaviours and how the subconscious rules human behaviours.

  • Humanistic Theories

The humanistic theory believes that every human is responsible for their own happiness and how they function in social settings.

Now let us look at the two additional theories when looking at what are the seven main theories of psychology.

  • Cross-cultural Theories

This is a more recent theory in which psychologists and researchers look at human behaviour with reference to cross-cultural backgrounds. This theory aims to examine how human behaviours and thought processes are influenced by cultural backgrounds by defining cross-cultural dimensions.

The cross-cultural theories seek to understand how cultural factors can influence the behaviour of humans. According to Wikipedia, “cross-cultural psychology is the scientific study of human behaviours and mental processes including both their variability and invariability under diverse cultural conditions”.

  • Evolutionary Theories

According to Wikipedia, evolutionary theory is a theoretical approach in psychology that examines cognition and behaviour from a modern evolutionary perspective. According to Wikipedia, it seeks to identify human psychological adaptations with regard to the ancestral problems they evolved to solve.

The evolutionary theory focuses on how the theory of evolution can throw more light on physiological processes. This theory believes that mental processes exist because they are important and aid in the survival of humans.

What Are The 3 Types Of Psychology?

What Are The 3 Types Of Psychology?

What are the 3 types of psychology? There are several types of psychology, but for the purpose of this article, we will be looking at three of them, which are: Clinical psychology, Counselling psychology and School psychology. We will take the time to analyse each of them in this part of the article.

What are the 3 types of psychology?

  • Clinical Psychology

According to American Psychological Association (APA), “clinical psychology is the psychological speciality that provides continuing and comprehensive mental and behavioural health care for individuals, couples, families and groups; consultation with agencies and communities; training, education and supervision”.

This branch of psychology is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders, abnormal behaviour or psychiatric problems. It is widely used to treat individuals with behavioural or mental disorders.

What are the 3 types of psychology?

  • Counselling Psychology

According to APA, “counselling psychology is a generalist health service speciality in professional psychology that uses a broad range of culturally informed and culturally sensitive practices to help people improve their well-being, prevent and alleviate distress and maladjustment, resolve crises and increase their functionality”.

When looking at what are the 3 types of psychology, Wikipedia says, “it is a psychological speciality that encompasses research and applied work in several domains such as counselling process and outcomes, supervision and training, career development and counselling, and prevention and health”.

What are the 3 types of psychology?

  • School Psychology

According to APA, school psychology is concerned with children, youth, families and the schooling process. It is a field of study and professional practice which focuses on the educational and psychological needs of children, young people and families. It is a field which is rooted in the development of children, clinical psychology and special education.

According to Wikipedia, school psychology is a field that applies principles from educational psychology, developmental psychology, clinical psychology, community psychology and behaviour analysis to meet the learning and behavioural health needs of children and adolescents.

Models Of Psychology Conclusion

Models Of Psychology Conclusion

Models of psychology conclusion. The models of psychology are very essential because they help psychologists and therapists understand human behaviours, thought processes and the patterns through which behaviours are formed. Therapists often study a client in order to know which model will be best suited for them.

Models of psychology conclusion. Psychologists and therapists use the models of psychology to uncover unconscious thoughts and behavioural patterns in humans which may be having a negative effect on a person’s life and explore them in order to have a deeper understanding of the root causes and to develop methods to help them heal from it.

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